The Sabah Roadmap Project will avoid at least 505,950 tons of CO2e over 20 years, and contribute to millions more through watershed conservation plans.


tons of C02

  • Displacement of non-renewable sources of off-grid electricity in rural areas, such as diesel fuel for generators.
  • Increased mitigation benefits compared to grid extension powered by fossil fuel
  • Up to 40,213 tons of CO2 emissions avoided each year, accounting for electricity demand growth

Sources: Emissions modeling by Green Empowerment.


tons of carbon

  • Sabah RE2’s hydro mini-grids are implemented alongside watershed conservation plans. This will contribute to preserving Sabah’s high-carbon stock forests, the top 5% of which contain 150 million tons of aboveground carbon.

Source: Mapped aboveground carbon stocks to advance forest conservation and recovery in Malaysian Borneo (2018)

RE mini-grids installed in 200+ villages will avoid up to 40,214 metric tons of CO2 annually.

RE mini-grids are the least carbon intensive solution to rural electrification. 

Diesel generators are displaced in off-grid communities, and Sabah’s dependence on fossil fuel for grid electricity is significantly reduced.

The project follows the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), calculating the mitigation potential based on energy consumption from RE mini-grids installed in the 400 villages over a 20-year period. This calculation used an emissions factor for electrification of rural communities using renewable energy (AMS-I L) that considers displacement of fossil fuel based lighting and standalone diesel generators.

The project creates additional emission reduction opportunities through the protection of 100,000+ acres of forests with community-based natural resource management.

Villages in the project’s portfolio are isolated forested regions or coastal towns within mangroves.

Sabah is known for its distinctive ecosystems with high biodiversity, from forested mountains to underwater kingdoms, that multi-sectoral efforts are rallying to protect.
Indigenous peoples protect 80% of the world’s biodiversity. Forest degradation rates are up to 26% lower on indigenous lands.

In Sabah, generations of indigenous communities have connected their beliefs and culture with the protection of nature.
We identified 67+ micro-hydro projects with the potential to protect 100,000+ acres of forests through watershed conservation incentives.

The project’s approach includes community training on the need for natural resource management. This involves the development of community-defined protocol and monitoring practices to enforce it.

The environmental attributes of RE mini-grids can increase the financial returns of the project, with DRECs potentially increasing operating income by up to 23%.

A Distributed Renewable Energy Credit (DRECs) is “an Energy Attribute Certificate (EAC) that certifies the generation of distributed renewable energy.” It captures the environmental impact of distributed renewable energy that can then be sold to climate investors and other buyers in voluntary carbon credit markets. 

Through the Smart Grid for Small Grids program, all 200+ mini-grids installed as part of the Sabah Roadmap Project will be built with remote monitoring technology to document and validate the project’s impact on mitigating carbon emissions.

Smart Grid for Small Grids remote monitoring devices will allow us to:

  • Collect granular electronic data on electricity consumption in rural areas;
  • Validate and quantify mitigation of CO2e emissions linked to clean energy use in rural villages;
  • Monetize the environmental attributes the Sabah Roadmap project through Distributed Renewable Energy Credits (DRECs).
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